Author of the book titled, The Khilafat Movement–Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India

“The study of the Khilafat Movement has thus indicated certain patterns which are applicable to national movements generally, and to movements of Islamic protest more specifically. That is, Islam as a religion and social order contains within itself certain symbols and networks of influence which allow for the development of alternative structures of mobilization which can operate independently of the state, whether traditional or modern, whether colonial or postcolonial.

“… The Muslims were not only the first to urge, endorse and act upon noncooperation, but they were also in the vanguard of the movement throughout. Whether as individuals or as a community, Muslim influence on the direction of Indian political activity was profound during this period. Specific instances have been cited of Hindu appreciation of their efforts, as well as apprehension of their influence. Muslim solidarity and the Hindu-Muslim alliance may have been more emotional than concrete, but emotions are not fictions, but rather the basis for all human relationships, including nationalism”.

…The alternative structures which developed as the vehicles for Muslim consciousness during the Khilafat movement provided the techniques, and much of the personnel, for the development of a specifically Muslim nationalism in the subcontinent later. (p.p. 211-212)