“The advent of the Khilafat movement in India from 1919 to 1924 that rallied the British to prevent the abolition of the caliphate in Turkey further sharpened the pan-Islamism and anti-imperialism brewing among Muslims in the Malay world”. Khairudin Aljuneid, Islam in Malaysia: An Entwined History, p. 131, Oxford University Press, 2019